can adequately express my deep sense of gratefulness for your loyal supervisor ratings of overall performance, advancement potential and risk of career difficulty. Although the duration of the leader-follower relationship marginally .. leadership is the influence process directed at followers to motivate effective effort. Surely improving the performance of followers should be worthwhile. What is the role of the follower and how does it affect leadership behavior and effectiveness? The relationship between leader and follower is truly symbiotic – you can't. Right now, figures prove that we mostly focus on employees in leadership rather They have a say on many decisions that will affect the lifetime of the Here are some tips on how to make a leader/follower relationship work.
When there is a crisis, when a company fails or commits some malfeasance, everyone cries out: How could that have happened here? How come nobody said anything? Followers have a responsibility to speak up.
The Leader – Follower Partnership: It’s a New Day
And the organization, if it wishes to be sustainably successful, has an equal obligation to create the environment for them to safely do so. No matter how much partnership and empowerment there is, the CEO has ultimate authority and responsibility.
The most capable team members fail when they gripe about their leader but do not say or do anything to help him or her improve or get back on track. To do this requires both courage and skill. The movement away from command and control leadership has brought new leadership styles that are more democratic and coach-like.
There are also new ways of interacting in the follower role. Setting aside possible aversion to the term, the new flatter business organization requires more responsible followers and more follower-friendly leaders.
Managing the Boss It is difficult to appreciate the pressures on the leader unless you have had that position. While ego-strength is a quality to be desired in a leader, it can be overly reinforced and transformed into ego-driven. The pressures at the top need to be managed. Courageous followers help leaders stay on track and manage their decision-making processes in the right direction.Defining Leadership
Responsible and effective followers have a critical role in maintaining the desired partnering dynamics. Many executive team members do some of these things quite naturally.
But often they are hesitant to speak up when the leader makes mistakes, whether they are made from the best of intentions or the worst. This has led to a relationship in which the follower avoids jeopardizing their chances of obtaining these rewards. Hence, the follower tends to do what the leader wants and, just as important, not offend or create a negative impression of themselves. A relationship based on this kind of power does not serve the organization, the leader or the follower because it shuts down the open flow of communication and candor a leader needs in order to optimize their effectiveness.
After all, who will tell the emperor he has no clothes? Chaleff sees a very different kind of relationship between leader and follower. When both the leader and follower are focused on the common purpose a new relationship between them arises. This new relationship is candid, respectful, supportive and challenging.
The Leader – Follower Partnership: It’s a New Day
It is a relationship that honors open communication, honesty and trust from both parties. Being aware of all the facts or data is crucial for effective decision making. And yet, in too many situations, followers are reluctant to present negative information for fear of repercussions. And why, in those situations, did people not step up and state their misgivings? In an environment where the focus of both leaders and followers is on serving the purpose of the organization these problems are far less likely to occur.
In such an environment, followers would be giving full voice to their concerns and instincts and leaders would welcome, value and pay attention to them. The Job of Effective Followers The sooner we recognize and accept our powerful position as followers, the sooner we can fully develop responsible, synergistic relationships in our organizations.
According to Chaleff, there are three things we need to understand in order to fully assume responsibility as followers. Understand our power and how to use it. As followers, we have far more power than we usually acknowledge. We have a unique vantage point as follower or team member, but we have to know that and use it. We need to understand the pressures upon the leader that can wear down creativity, good humor and resolve. Work toward minimizing the pitfalls of power by helping the leader to remain on track for the long-term common good.
We are all witness to how power can corrupt, and it takes courage and skill to speak up. We can learn how to counteract the dark tendency of power. Feedback to the leader is necessary for the new leadership styles to be effective. The Five Dimensions of Courageous Followership Chaleff identifies and defines what is required of followers to become an equal partner with the leader in fulfilling the purpose of the organization.
The Courage to Assume Responsibility — Courageous followers assume responsibility for themselves and the organization. When individual in the group coexist and associate for common purpose and when the group persists for a sufficient period of time organization develops.
The role of a leader in the group is to provide direction, coordinate the activities of the individual members constituting the group and to ensure consistency.
The image of the leader and the quality of leadership is reflected through the organization and the attitude of the subordinate in the performance of their task. Thus, the leader in the use of his organizing power decides the pattern of work behavior, task operation and ethnic of subordinates. Leadership is vital to employee performance and corporate excellence. Consequently organization spends substantial sum of money in search of effective leadership in training of their personnel in effective leadership behavior.
There is also relative scarcity of effective leadership and that is why organizations search constantly for it and lead them to effect, design and develop all the effective leadership potentials possible in those who are associated with corporate management.
Leadership Behavior and Styles Leadership behavior and style is the way in which the functions of leadership are carried out, the way in which managers typically behave towards members of the group, Onosode [ 13 ] further stated that there are many dimensions to leadership and many possible ways of describing leadership style such as dictatorialunitary, bureaucratic, charismatic, consultative, participative and abdicatorial.
Autocratic leadership Adebakin and Gbadamosi [ 8 ] described an autocratic leader as one who is very conscious of his position and has little trust or faith in the subordinates, he feels that pay is just a reward for work and it is only the reward which can motivate.
Impact of Leadership Style on Organization Performance: A Critical Literature Review
The leader gives order and insists follower to carry out Figure 1. Illustrates the flow of influence in autocratic leadership situation. He also identifies some shortcoming of autocratic leadership as: Criticism and praises are objectively given and a feeling of responsibility is developed within the group.
Akpala [ 10 ] argued that this form of leadership is claimed to be earliest amongst all other leadership style.
The managers discuss with the subordinates before he issues general or broad orders from which subordinates feel free to act on.
The superior allows the subordinates opportunity to use their initiative and make contributions. The leaders also offer supports to the subordinates in accomplishing task Figure 2. Illustrates the flow of influence in Democratic leadership situation. Laissez-faire leadership Laissez-faire type of leadership is at the other end of the continuum from the autocratic style.
With this type, leaders attempt to pass the responsibility of decision making process to the group. The group is loosely structured, as the leader has no confidence in his leadership ability. Decision making under this leadership is performed by whoever that is willing to accept it.
As a result, the task may not be undertaken and tile conditionally become chaotic Flippo et al. Illustrates the flow of influence in laissez-faire leadership situation. Different Types of Power Within an organization, leadership influences will be dependent upon the type of power that the leader can exercise over the workers Power is the capacity to influence.
Okafor [ 12 ] defines power as capacity to influence another through a control over needed resources. The exercise of power is a process, which helps to explain how different people can influence the behaviors and actions of others. Adebakin Gbadamosi [ 8 ]. Legitimate power is based on authority, for example, that of a manager and supervisor within the hierarchical structure of an organization.
Coercive power Coercive power is an opposite side of reward power. It is based on credibility and clear evidence of knowledge or expertise. The expert power, just as reward, power is usually limited to the amount of reward the leader can offer, and a well-defined area or specialism respectively.
Such leader may not posses power or reward or punishment but may still exercise power over subordinates because he commands their respect or esteem. Organization powers to influence as noted by Akpala [ 10 ] are directional anti arc aimed at some level of goal achievement and accomplishment. Qualities of a Good Leader What makes a leader effective? Most people when probably asked would admit that effective leadership results from certain desirable characteristics from certain desirable qualities which manifest in result, rather than describing it.
However,exhibits the following qualities. Dedication Organizational effectiveness is a function of how committed a leader is to the goals and objectives of that organization.
Dedication is measured on the basis of work done as well as its efficiency. It is therefore a function of self-sacrifice and an air of complete commitment.
Communication In the time past it was common among business executives to make plans and discussions and keep it to themselves now-a-days management as revealed by Peter Drucker [ 15 ] shows that effective managerial leadership considers communication as management by objective MBO.
This involves giving subordinates an access to experience decision making by communicating them to top management priorities. It will enable subordinates to do what the situation demand and the responsibility of the decision, unclear communication and goal could lead to ineffectual tasks.
Human relations This is otherwise called interpersonal relationship. A leader should be strong in his human relations attitude, especially when his job is done through the subordinates. Developing and understanding the appropriate human relations skills will earn the leader healthy respect.
Based on the human relations theory, jobs should be designed and work scheduled to ensure that jobs provide workers with meaningful work sense of responsibility as well as opportunity to participate in decisions affecting their job. Crises manager A leader should be able to settle disputes or differences among his employees as well as issues which impairs employees output. Effective decision The ability of a manager to plan strategically depends on his effective decision making.
Effective decision making in a contemporary management involves defensive avoidance, collecting more and more information about the cost and utility of each alternative and comparing them systematically in order to choose the most effective costs.
Endurance A good leader should have empathy for his subordinates and ensure that he understand their problems and help to provide solution to them.
Hence they are emotionally mature so that they are neither easily discouraged by defeat nor overwhelmed by success. They have a high tolerance for frustration. Administrative skills A leader must possess the ability of managing the various resources human, material and financial of an organization in an efficient and effective manner to avoid redundancy or wastage. Decision making This is a very significant attribute of leadership. In an attempt to solve organizational problems and to make sound and effective decision, the leader should possess a good knowledge of problem solving techniques.
Expert opinion A leader of a formal organization should have exerted knowledge of what the organization aims to achieve. This is one important source of his power as a leader. It is only when a leader is an expert that he can give quality and progressive decisions.
Theoretical Framework of Leadership Many theoretical concepts have been used to describe leadership. Prominent among them are the traits approach, the situation concepts and combinations traits, and situation concept approach manifesting into the group dynamic approach. Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can.
Because of this human characteristic of dislike or work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort towards the achievements of organizational objectives.
Average human beings prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relative little ambition, and want security above all. The trait theory or approach to leadership suggests that the person who emerges as a leader in a group does so because he possesses certain traits.
Like all client there are some elements of truth in the saying although it cannot be taken generally. The approach suggests that effective leaders should have: This is defined as the quality which makes people trust you.
It means literally personal wholeness. This is a general characteristic of leaders. A warm personality listens and accommodates, calmness, and tough no matter how valuable the traditional approach might be in the long term, it may not he considered the best approach to the study of leadership in an organization.
But the study of leadership in terms of qualities of personality and character as it differs from person to person goes a long way in understanding leadership but it is far from being the whole story. The assumptions under theory Y are seen by McGregor as follows: The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing about effort toward organization objectives.
People will exercise set i-direction and set F control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. Commitment to objectives is a function or reward that is associated with their achievement. Average human beings learn, under proper conditions not only to accept but also seek responsibility The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely, not narrowly distributed in the population.
Under the conditions of modern industrial life the intellectual potential of the average human being are only partially utilized. By this theory McGregor, again demonstrated the factors that influence practical managers in choosing a leadership style, which would in turn impacts positively or negatively on the subordinates, and consequently on the entire organization. However, McGregor warned managers viewing the theory as representing two opposite extreme style of leadership.
But instead, recommended that an effective manager should recognize the dignity and capabilities, as well as the limitations of people and adjust behaviors as demanded by the situation. The approach summarizes three main areas of need in working groups. That anyone who provides a hind which is accepted or effective in a group is the leader for that moment.
This is because some group do have safety leaders, appointed or elected individuals who would come up with the necessary function if no one else did so. The contingency approach The approach was developed by a group of researchers and consultants who tried to apply the concepts of the approaches of the main schools of thought as highlighted above to real life situations. They found, there is no single design that is best for all situations.
Solutions to problems depend on the particular situation or environment. Prominent among the researchers include Woodward et al. Leadership and Management One general misconception about leadership is regarding it as managership. Although some scholars treat the terms managership and leadership as synonym, this is not correct. As a matter of fact there can be leaders completely from an unorganized group, but there can be managers as conceived in an organization only where organizedstructure create roles.
Two terms however cannot be entirely put differently. Addair [ 18 ] argued that the truth is that leadership and managership are different concepts but they overlap very considerably. Both are about achieving objective, getting result through people. Addair [ 18 ] gave these distinctive undertones, that management implies good administration, the efficient and effective use of all resources especially money.
It deals with installation, maintenance of systems, administration and control of finance. It looks at people as things and human resources and not as persons, free and equal intelligent, motivated and immensely capable.
Unlike leadership, none of those distinctive undertones of management are the same in the industry and commerce they go together. Leadership is about giving direction, building a team and inspiring others word leadership and changes go together. Management entails the proper and efficient use of resources and it is inspired leadership. Conflicts of Measurement of Productivity and Organizational Goal Attainment The performance of any company in terms of growth is usually derived from the productivity of that company.
His concern was on how best the processes of production could be organized among employees in order to create increased output in an organization. He was of the opinion that employers of labor should relate employees reward to the present economic situations order to generate the desired organization objectives. According to Ocho [ 19 ] it is not only money and bonuses that can motivate employees, recognition, respect, honor and reward hut should have roles to play in encouraging employees to increase their performance.
TQM is a business philosophy that embodies the belief the management process must focus on integrating the idea of customer driven quality throughout an organization as quoted by Aluko et al. It stresses continuous improvement of product quality and service delivery.