Expectancy Theory of Motivation
The relationship leading from effort-reward imbalance to impaired health .. According to the effort-recovery theory (Meijman & Mulder, The expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School of individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to Performance-reward relationship: It talks about the extent to which the . Customer Relationship Management · Relationship Marketing · Business to. John Stacey Adams' equity theory helps explain why pay and conditions alone do not fairness maintained within the relationships of their co-workers and the organization. Words like efforts and rewards, or work and pay, are an over- simplification . Equity Theory in business introduces the concept of social comparison.
Some people reduce effort and application and become inwardly disgruntled, or outwardly difficult, recalcitrant or even disruptive. Other people seek to improve the outputs by making claims or demands for more reward, or seeking an alternative job.
Thus, the theory has wide-reaching implications for employee morale, efficiency, productivity, and turnover. Assumptions of Equity Theory applied to business The three primary assumptions applied to most business applications of Equity Theory can be summarized as follows: Employees expect a fair return for what they contribute to their jobs, a concept referred to as the "equity norm".
Employees determine what their equitable return should be after comparing their inputs and outcomes with those of their coworkers social comparison. Implications of Equity Theory for managers Understanding Equity Theory - and especially its pivotal comparative aspect - helps managers and policy-makers to appreciate that while improving one person's terms and conditions can resolve that individual's demands for a whileif the change is perceived by other people to upset the equity of their own situations then the solution can easily generate far more problems than it attempted to fix.
Equity Theory reminds us that people see themselves and crucially the way they are treated in terms of their surrounding environment, team, system, etc - not in isolation - and so they must be managed and treated accordingly. Equity Theory has several implications for business managers: People measure the totals of their inputs and outcomes.
This means a working mother may accept lower monetary compensation in return for more flexible working hours. Different employees ascribe personal values to inputs and outcomes. Thus, two employees of equal experience and qualification performing the same work for the same pay may have quite different perceptions of the fairness of the deal. Employees are able to adjust for purchasing power and local market conditions.
Thus a teacher from Alberta may accept lower compensation than his colleague in Toronto if his cost of living is different, while a teacher in a remote African village may accept a totally different pay structure. Although it may be acceptable for more senior staff to receive higher compensation, there are limits to the balance of the scales of equity and employees can find excessive executive pay demotivating. Staff perceptions of inputs and outcomes of themselves and others may be incorrect, and perceptions need to be managed effectively.
An employee who believes he is over-compensated may increase his effort. However he may also adjust the values that he ascribes to his own personal inputs. It may be that he or she internalizes a sense of superiority and actually decrease his efforts.
However, current research mainly focuses on work problems. Further, rewards in this study go along with job security. Kinnunen and Mauno showed that job insecurity is a predictor of work-family conflict in Finland, and within the women of their sample it decreased family-work conflict but increased work-family conflict.
Therefore, research on the influence of rewards on dependent variables such as work-family conflict as well as job satisfaction should include a gender perspective cf. Thus, this relationship is still unclear and needs further research to be better understood. To expand the present study, future research should also make allowance for different additional variables: Because family-to-work conflict is more strongly influenced by family than by work variables Greenhaus et al.
This social imbalance may increase family-work conflict. Furthermore, the direct and indirect effects of positive work-family interaction should be integrated in order to investigate potential buffering effects see Wiese et al. Moreover, moderators such as gender and resources cf. Especially the different responsibilities of participants for children, elder care, children and elder care, or no caring responsibility at all should be further addressed by multi-group analysis.
Another limitation is the cross-sectional design of the study, which weakens the causal interpretation of the results. Recent literature has called for more longitudinal research in the work-family domain Greenhaus et al.
For example, Innstrand et al. Thus, the relation described in the present study should also be investigated in a longitudinal design to test reciprocal effects and to achieve better causal interpretations.
Therefore, the present study shows that commitment to the workplace can be too strong including undesirable effects on work-family integration and mental health. Thus, at the end of a work day it is important to let employees go and fulfill other aspects of life in order to recover and to come back every next day.
Acknowledgement of employees with multiple interests in combination with flexible working arrangement would be beneficial.
Expectancy Theory in the Workplace | santemontreal.info
To gain high performance it is necessary to build up resources — which is in responsibility of the person, and the organizational climate. Organizations have no influence on the stable personality traits of their employees, however they have — to some degree — an impact on which behavioral patterns are rewarded by the organization and its culture as well as the question whether offers for personal development are made.
Thus, regarding this aspect and in consequence of the present study, Berg et al. Therefore, organizations should reflect on the extent of benefits of commitment and work engagement concerning organizational success and a potential situation of people sitting in their bureaus long hours, making more mistakes than working effectively, neglecting their family responsibilities and impairing their own health in the worst case.
Rather they should reward if people actively set limits to their commitment, seek relaxation to renew their resources and come back to work dedicatedly. Another important aspect includes the responsible handling of new technologies and the associated knowledge, to which extent these technologies are, on one side, beneficial for the reduction of work-family conflict and stress, such as having the ability to use flexible office arrangements to some degree. And on the other side, it is about the extent to which these technologies determine our lives stronger than our intellect and the feeling of exhaustion.
This is one of the real challenges of the workforce, but, with the aim to stay healthy as individuals as well as companies, the view has to be changed from fast successes to being successful in the long run. Therefore, first and foremost the highest management level of the organization is in responsibility to highlight the importance of workplace health promotion and work-life-balance.
This is especially important in fast changing, cost-sensitive and high pace working situations, where these aspects are normally deprioritized but needed the most.
If organizations are under pressure they tend to neglect that if less people should produce more outcomes, these high performing employees have to build up their energy to stay successful and healthy in the long run. And according to the ERI model, if employees give more from themselves e. Otherwise exactly these high performing employees, which are willing and able to increase their efforts, will — without appropriate reward — seek alternatives and leave the company in the long run, which would be in accordance with the ERI model.
In relation to the ERI components as predictors of work-family conflict, one practical implication is to sensitively observe what kind of effects rewards have on potential conflict experiences of followers. Moreover, especially the focus on this culture dimensions is important because the organizational culture also defines what is expected of men and women in the organization regarding their work but also family roles — including what is expected of leaders with familiar responsibilities.
So it is also important that people leader are role models for an appropriate level of commitment, work-life-balance and healthy behavior. Moreover, the employees have the responsibility to care for themselves. Thus, at an early stage, they have to learn that it is important to build up resources in order to prevent loss cycles and therefore, care for their own health. As a conclusion of this study, the impact of internal work-family conflict on mental health leads to the practical implication that it is important to set life-domain priorities over different phases of life and life goals for oneself and to organize everyday life, which may help to deal with overcommitment tendencies — if reflected on a regular base.
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Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, — This will most likely lead to low expectancy. This occurs when the individual believes that their desired results are unattainable.
Perceived control — Individuals must believe that they have some degree of control over the expected outcome. When individuals perceive that the outcome is beyond their ability to influence, expectancy, and thus motivation, is low.
This reward may present itself in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the reward is the same for all performances given.
Stacey Adams equity theory | Employee motivation theories | YourCoach Gent
Another way that instrumental outcomes work is commissions. With commissions performance is directly correlated with outcome how much money is made. If performance is high and many goods are sold the more money the person will make. Factors associated with the individual's instrumentality for outcomes are trust, control and policies: Trusting the people who will decide who gets what outcome, based on the performance, Control of how the decision is made, of who gets what outcome, Policies understanding of the correlation between performance and outcomes.
Valence V R [ edit ] Valence: Influential factors include one's values, needs, goals, preferences and sources that strengthen their motivation for a particular outcome.
Valence is characterized by the extent to which a person values a given outcome or reward. This is not an actual level of satisfaction rather the expected satisfaction of a particular outcome. Valence is one behavioral alternative, where the decision is measured on the value of the reward. The model below shows the direction of motivation, when behavior is energized: Expectancy and instrumentality are attitudes cognitionswhereas valence is rooted in an individual's value system.
Examples of valued outcomes in the workplace include, pay increases and bonuses, promotions, time off, new assignments, recognition, etc. If management can effectively determine what their employee values, this will allow the manager to motivate employees in order to get the highest result and effectiveness out of the workplace.
According to Holdford and Lovelace-Elmorep. In order to enhance the performance-outcome tie, managers should use systems that tie rewards very closely to performance. Managers also need to ensure that the rewards provided are deserved and wanted by the recipients.
Computer users[ edit ] Lori Baker-Eveleth and Robert Stone, University of Idaho in conducted an empirical study on faculty members' reactions to the use of new software.