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Manitoba History: “Practical Results”: The Riel Statue Controversy at the Manitoba . That such negative images persist even in a text intended as part of a .. Important Form: Louis Riel in Sculpture,” Prairie Forum 22 1 (Spring ), 5. SPRING WINTER FALL SUMMER SPRING WINTER FALL SUMMER SPRING CREDIT UNION. SPRING ISSUE CROCUS CREDIT UNION LIMITED MAY OPEN TO The pictures. 9am to pm e-mail [email protected] [email protected] home Annual General Meeting in December, , 3 Directors decided not to let.
We make it available here as a free, public service. Please direct all inquiries to webmaster mhs. Inthe first of the northern Indians in what is today Manitoba signed a treaty surrendering their lands to The Queen of Canada. Byall of the land had been surrendered, and the Indians provided with small tracts of reserve lands in their once expansive territories. Inthe Indians of the Chemawawin Indian Band, living today at Easterville, were again contacted by government and asked to surrender their remaining lands.
And inthe Indian people of South Indian Lake were likewise asked by government to move aside. The government requests of the s were not stimulated by a need for Indian land for agricultural purposes, nor by a desire to acquire minerals or to navigate rivers.
In the s a new era was dawning in northern Manitoba, one which would replicate the treaty process and once again leave the Indian people without the benefits that should have accrued from their status as original occupiers of the land.
This was the era of the hydroelectric project, and it necessitated a whole new round of negotiations and agreements between the government and the Indian people. The purpose of this article is to examine briefly the legacy of hydro development in the north by focussing on two key questions which have parallels in the current debate on the treaty-making process: However it has been unable, or unwilling, to convert the energy, employment, and income potential of hydro development into programs to enhance the economic situation of the Natives [ 3 ] of the region.
Easterville and the Grand Rapids Dam The people of Chemawawin, now Easterville, first heard of the plans for a dam at Grand Rapids in the spring ofeven though actual planning of the project had been underway since at least Chemawawin at the time was a small, semi-isolated community of some people. Located at the confluence of the Saskatchewan River and Cedar Lake, the people of the community supported themselves through hunting, fishing, trapping, and occasional wage labour in a small sawmill.
There were no roads to the community, and no electricity for the Band members. Log houses and tar-paper shacks provided shelter from the bitter Manitoba winters. People only occasionally ventured forth from Chemawawin to these places, and usually only for quick visits to execute some economic transaction.
But it was not. The people enjoyed a rich social and cultural life, and obtained the necessary income from the abundant natural resources of the area. The community was located in a beautiful site, with thick ground cover. Poverty, being a relative concept, had no meaning to these people.
When the people of Chemawawin were informed of the impending Grand Rapids dam, a project which would flood out virtually all of their community and necessitate their relocation to a new site, they came face-to-face with their own version of the treaty commission: Constituted by the Manitoba government and consisting of civil servants whose numbers varied over the years, the Forebay Committee was charged with the responsibility of negotiating with the Indians for the surrender of the reserve land at Chemawawin, and for selecting new reserve land elsewhere in the region.
The substance of what the Chemawawin people would be offered in return for the surrender of their reserve lands was communicated in a letter to the Chief in April of Five, which the Chemawawin people had signed in Indeed, the parallels between the Letter of Intent and Treaty No.
Five were not lost on the people, nor were its implications. They wrote to the Manitoba government: We feel that this letter is similar to a Treaty. Significantly, no lawyer was made available to the community to assist it in its deliberations. The Native people themselves likely did not know of the existence of lawyers as professional advocates, and there is no indication that they ever requested one.
The Chemawawin residents, who spoke little English and who had had little extensive contact with non-Native governmental structures, were left to their own devices. I believe that the controversy surrounding the Riel statues must be understood not in an artistic context, with rather with reference to the social and historical contexts that framed the events in question.
Grave of Louis Riel at the Cathedrale de St. This pamphlet will be distributed to school children throughout the province, and will be made available to future visitors to the Legislative Building area. Lionel Dorge, then of the University of Manitoba. The editing process to which this text was subject provides evidence that even as Riel was being memorialized, he was still being tagged with negative associations and conceptualized through colonial imagery.
Dorge recorded in writing his reaction to the changes recommended by the anonymous editor who reviewed his text.
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It also shows ignorance of the inestimable importance of water transportation in Red River history. It was here that stood the flagstaff where Wolseley would fly the old Jack. It would seem that it was Wolseley who entered through the back gate There was no one in the fort and again the word is suggestive of a thief in the night. Riel and his men had the common sense to leave before they were shot at like rabbits. There is little need to suggest anything but this.
First, the changes suggested by the editor seem designed to lessen the impact of Riel as a hero and to link him linguistically to other, less positive images.
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That such negative images persist even in a text intended as part of a celebratory publication demonstrates the possibility of at once honouring and demeaning Riel.
The media coverage of the Riel statue controversy illustrates as much. Why can Riel not have trousers on, like the others? It is thereby apparent that The Winnipeg Free Press and The Winnipeg Sun sought to minimize the subversive potential of individuals and organizations who opposed whatever appeared to be the current officially-sanctioned position regarding the commemoration of Riel on the Manitoba Legislative Building grounds.
Donna Graves has penned an insightful article regarding the creation of a monument to Joe Louis in Detroit and the varied but overwhelmingly negative public reaction that it garnered. These statements are false and are obviously made by a person who knows absolutely nothing about the construction of this sculpture. The statue is not falling apart. The surface has not worn through to the steel metal supports. The mesh wire which shows through in certain areas was intentional and forms part of the surface texture.
Such ambiguity is not inherently a deficiency, but becomes problematic in light of the social context from which the statue cannot be divorced. The monument was subject to extensive physical abuse while it stood between the Manitoba Legislative Building and the Assiniboine River. Who will come to his rescue this time? Bust of Louis Rid located on the grounds of the Musee de St. Robert Coutts While the statue and the vandalism had become indistinguishable for some, the distinction between Riel as historical figure and Riel as artistic rendering had become blurred for others.
Historical interpretations tend to become entrenched, to seem more credible each time they are retold, simply by virtue of repetition. This is evident in the comments written by members of the public in the notebooks Jean Allard made available during his two-week protest at the statue.
The comments demonstrate a tendency on the part of many visitors to equate the statue and the man. It represents a history that cannot be undone or erased.
Primarily in the years immediately before and after the statue was erected, there was limited but spirited debate from individuals who opposed any commemoration of Louis Riel for ethnic, national, or linguistic reasons. The files of Premier Edward Schreyer contain letters from people wanting to express their outrage at the erection of a statue dedicated to the memory of a man they still considered a traitor.
A few went so far as to suggest that a statue to Thomas Scott should instead be erected. It will be my Centennial project.
Click here to go to Macromedia download page. Like many Florida springs, nitrate levels in all of the monitored Homosassa River spring vents have been trending upward during the period of studywith an approximate increase of 0.
Inthe nitrate concentration at Homosassa Main Spring was measured at 0. These trends are very similar to those measured in the three Homosassa Main vents.
Monthly rainfall measured at Tarpon Springs indicates a slight increase of 1. The results show that all values plot along a denitrification trend which, when traced back to its source, indicates an inorganic fertilizer nitrogen source.
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Denitrification was most apparent from the Bluebird Spring sample; the Hidden River Head and Hidden River 2 springs showed the lowest denitrification. As previously noted, the Hidden River spring samples also showed the highest nitrate concentrations measured in the study area. The other macronutrient of concern in Florida surface waters, orthophosphate, is only present in low concentrations in all Homosassa-area springs, with mean values ranging from 0.
This is due to its attenuation within limestone aquifers where, given enough time, orthophosphate reacts with calcium carbonate to produce low-solubility calcium phosphate minerals which remain within the host rock Brown, Salinity indicator trends in Homosassa 1 Spring: Comparing data to mean values measured at Homosassa Main 1 Spring during the periodsodium and chloride concentrations have increased over two-fold, sulfate has increased more than seven-fold and specific conductance has increased almost two-fold.
Water quality data from samples collected from the three Homosassa Main vents show that Homosassa Main 3 has the overall lowest concentration of salinity indicators, and Homosassa Main 2 has the highest.
It is not known why sulfate concentrations at Homosassa Main 1 spring have increased at a higher rate than increases in sodium and chloride concentrations.
There is strong temporal correlation at each spring between all of the salinity indicators. The highest overall mean salinity indicator values were found in Homosassa 1 and 2, and Halls River Head springs. The longer-term measured increases in salinity indicators reflect one or more of the following potential causes: Salinity indicator trends in Trotter Main Spring: The levels measured in the Homosassa Group springs are within this normal ground water range, with mean DO values in the 2.
Some fish species can tolerate lower dissolved oxygen levels, and thrive in spring vent environments. Dissolved oxygen levels generally rise rapidly in surface waters downstream from spring vents, due to plant respiration; however, the headwaters of the Homosassa River within Ellie Schiller Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park are largely devoid of submerged aquatic vegetation. Boron, not known to occur naturally in high concentrations in fresh Floridan aquifer system ground water, has recently been sampled as a possible wastewater tracer in wells and springs, due to its widespread use in laundry detergents.
Boron results were not available for the other Homosassa Group springs. Sucralose is used as an artificial sweetener. Because it passes through water treatment systems largely intact, it has recently been used as a potential human wastewater tracer. Very low detections values between the laboratory method detection limit and the practical quantitation limit were seen only at Pumphouse 1 and Trotter Main springs; at the other springs, sucralose was at concentrations below laboratory detection limits.
Sucralose detections could be indicative of possible wastewater influences within the springshed. Bird species in the park include flamingos, pelicans, sandhill cranes, roseate spoonbills, and shorebirds.