The Pelvis | Fins to Feet
Each adult hip bone is formed by three separate bones that fuse together during the These bony components are the ilium, ischium, and pubis (Figure ). chaves os carpinteiros parte 2 serhs food area arenys muntari tektronix printers Antarctic Plate peralatan medi. Cazander G, van Veen KE, Bernards AT, et al: Do maggots have an influence on bacterial growth? .. thoracodorsal, and deep circumflex iliac direct cutaneous arteries. PUBMED Abstract de Vos JP, Burm AG, Focker BP: Results Yoon HY, Mann FA: Bilateral pubic and ischial osteotomy for.
Hamstrings The long head biceps femoris arises from the lower and inner impression on the back part of the tuberosity of the ischiumby a tendon common to it and the semitendinosusand from the lower part of the sacrotuberous ligament ;  The semitendinosus arises from the lower and medial impression on the tuberosity of the ischium, by a tendon common to it and the long head of the biceps femoris; it also arises from an aponeurosis which connects the adjacent surfaces of the two muscles to the extent of about 7.
The semimembranosus arises from the lower and medial impression on the tuberosity of the ischium Anterior compartment of thigh The rectus femoris muscle arises by two tendons: The sartorius muscle arises by tendinous fibres from the anterior superior iliac spine, Shoulder muscles The latissimus dorsi muscle attaches to the iliac crest and several places on the spine and ribs.
Clinical significance[ edit ] The proportions of the female hip bone may affect the ease of passage of the baby during childbirth. Pelvimetry is the assessment of the female pelvis  in relation to the birth of a baby in order to detect an increased risk for obstructed labor.
Pelvic fracture Fractures of the hip bone are termed pelvic fracturesand should not be confused with hip fractureswhich are actually femoral fractures  that occur in the proximal end of the femur. In animals[ edit ] The hip bone first appears in fishes, where it consists of a simple, usually triangular bone, to which the pelvic fin articulates.
The hip bones on each side usually connect with each other at the forward end, and are even solidly fused in lungfishes and sharksbut they never attach to the vertebral column. The acetabulum is already present at the point where the three bones meet. In these early forms, the connection with the vertebral column is not complete, with a small pair of ribs connecting the two structures; nonetheless the pelvis already forms the complete ring found in most subsequent forms.
The obturator foramen is generally very small in such animals, although most reptiles do possess a large gap between the pubis and ischium, referred to as the thyroid fenestra, which presents a similar appearance to the obturator foramen in mammals. In birdsthe pubic symphysis is present only in the ostrichand the two hip bones are usually widely separated, making it easier to lay large eggs. The same pattern is seen in all modern mammals, and the thyroid fenestra and obturator foramen have merged to form a single space.
Adapted from skepticwiki's article on Dinosaurs. In birds and in several Dinosaur species, the vertebrae near the pelvis are fused into a skeletal structure called the synsacrum.
The Hip Bone
In many cases, the pelvic girdle is fused to the synsacrum. What is the function of the pelvis? The Pubes and Ishcia also serve as anchoring sites for a number of muscles. This is especially true of birds, where the pelvis is the only bony structure in the abdomen. Wait, why is the Pubis of the Alligator dissociated from the rest of the pelvis in the diagram?
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In crocodilians, the pubis is excluded from the Acetabulum and is attached to the Ischium through movable cartilaginous joints. Interestingly, this bone is mobile and actually plays a role in crocodilian respiration.
During inhalation, the pubis rotates downwards, increasing the volume of the abdominal cavity and contributing to the inward suction of air. What broad changes does the pelvis undergo on the way to the birds? The Theropod pelvis primitively has forwardly directed pubes as seen in Tyrannosaurus rex.
In some species, like T. In modern Birds, however, the pubes point backwards.
Hip Bone Anatomy or Pelvic Bone[Ilium-Pubis-Ischium]
This is known as opisthopuby. It is observed in Archeopteryx. But what of those switchblade-claw bearing, bird-like Theropods — the Deinonychosaurians? In Velociraptor mongolensis, the pubis points backwards. Reconstructions of other species have the pubis pointing downwards — a sort of middle-ground between the Tyrannosaur and Avian condition.
We may call it Mesopuby. Pelvis of Archeopteryx and Velociraptor. They are both opisthopubic. The Therizinosaurs — a group of strange herbivorous Maniraptoran Theropods — also seem to have bird-like pelvises. But this trait was probably acquired independently of the bird-deinonychosaurian line.
What possible functional significance could this change have had? Carrier and Farmer suggest that changes in pubic orientation may have altered the muscular mechanics associated with respiration. Bottom view of an albatross pelvis The purpose of the diagram to the left is to demonstrate this: The pubes of modern birds are slender and unfused at their far ends.
In early birds like Confuciosornis and Archeopteryx, the tips of the pubes fuse to form a bony ring.