What Are the Functions of a Hydrolysis Reaction in Biology? | Education - Seattle PI
Dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction) between sugar molecules. Monosaccharides. DEHYDRATION & HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS. Dehydration reactions involve monomer molecules (like amino acids or simple sugars) bonding to each other. Answer to 1. Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis? A. Dehydration.
Or we could imagine, well, maybe it'll be used, maybe it forms a hydroxide anion first, or maybe that bond immediately goes and picks up a hydrogen ion out of the solution from another, from a hydronium ion sitting someplace. So this could be used to form a bond with this hydrogen ion, which is really, this is just a proton here. You take an electron away from hydrogen, it's just going to be a proton.
Well, what's that going to do? Well, that's going to link these two glucose molecules. And it's gonna link it just like this, and it's important to keep track of our molecules here. So this oxygen is now going to be this oxygen. It's now going to be that oxygen. This bond between the number four carbon on the right-hand side of that oxygen is this bond right over here. This, where we took this electron pair to form this bond with the number one carbon, that is, let me do it in that magenta color.
That is this bond, this bond right over here. The oxygen, this oxygen, is now this oxygen right over here. And this electron pair is now formed a bond with this hydrogen, so we could say, oh, that could be, let me do that blue, that could be, that could be this bond right over here. Now the one difference is, based on how I've drawn it, this oxygen, or sorry, this oxygen, the way I've drawn it, it's attached to the number one carbon here, the number four carbon here.
We have that over, we've already done that over here. Number one carbon on the left molecule, number four carbon on the right molecule. But we also have it bonded, we also have it bonded to a hydrogen. So just the way I've done it right now, it's still bonded to a hydrogen. It's going to have a net positive charge.
Over here, it was neutral. It was neutral right over here, but then it's now sharing its electrons.Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
It's now sharing both of those electrons in a covalent bond, and so you can think of it as it's giving away an electron to this carbon, so it's going to have a net positive charge. But then to get back to neutral, you could imagine, well, maybe some type of a water molecule could grab that ion, so maybe this one right over here. This one right over here could grab that hydrogen, and then these electrons, both of them, and it would just grab the hydrogen nucleus of the proton, and so these two electrons could go back to this oxygen and then this oxygen would become neutral.
And so what we would be left with, actually, let me just erase this, is that this hydrogen would now be attached to this oxygen, and we would have a hydronium ion. And this is reasonable. We essentially had some hydronium.
We had a hydrogen proton out here before and we still do. Now it's attached to a water, so we've take a proton and we've given back a proton, so we have a net-net kind of added charge or taken charge away from the system. But the important thing that we just saw is as these two things essentially attached, we lost a water molecule, or I guess net-net, this system lost a water molecule. It took up a charge to do it, to build that water molecule, but the thing that really kind of escaped from both of these two molecules is this, is this right over here.
This H is this H, this oxygen is this oxygen. And this hydrogen is this hydrogen right over here.
Dehydration synthesis or a condensation reaction
And so this type of a reaction in which we're synthesizing a more complex molecule, a longer chain of glucose molecules, this is called a dehydration synthesis. So what we just did, this right over here is called a dehydration synthesis. Why are we calling it a dehydration synthesis?
Well, we've just taken a water out. If you imagine losing water, we talk about you're getting dehydrated. Well, we put two things together. We synthesized a larger molecule. Sometimes this would be called a condensation reaction. And by doing this, these two glucose molecules are able to form a disaccharide now. So each individually, they were monosaccharides, so this one on the right, that's a monosaccharide. What does monosaccharide mean? Well, it means, mono means single or one and saccharide comes from the Greek word for sugar.
This is organic processes, which involve simple compounds to be modified, joined together or converted into other compounds to form macromolecules. There are two processes that play vital roles in biosynthesis. These are Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis. Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis both deal with water and other molecules, but in very different ways. Both have a reverse reaction in relation to each other and vice versa.
In biology, these processes involve the formation of Polymers, these are molecules covalently linked together. These are formed when water is removed from a chemical equation then monomers small molecules bond together. In order to break the bonds, water must be added to the equation.
To further understand this, detailed information regarding the difference between hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis is discussed below. Hydrolysis Hydrolysis means separating with the use of water.
Introduction to macromolecules (article) | Khan Academy
In Chemistry, Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction with water, in which a macromolecule is separated into smaller molecules. On the other hand, in Biology, this process involves water to split polymers into monomers. The bottom line is Hydrolysis occurs when water is added to the equation to break it down or separate it.